Each medical device must be designed and manufactured in accordance with the relevant technical standards. Given the variety of medical products (from the spoon for giving antibiotics to the artificial heart), it is clear that the same standards do not apply to all medical products. So it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to determine what the additional standards are that apply to his product. Some of such standards are e.g. EN 12470 for clinical thermometers, or EN 12184 for electrically powered wheelchairs, or EN ISO 11608 for needle-based injection systems.
Furthermore, certain standards refer to some procedures such as standards covering sterilization. Given the different methods of sterilization, there are dozens of standards associated with sterilization. Again, it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to determine which sterilization standards must be met.
According to the Medical device regulation (MDR 2017/745), all manufacturers of medical devices must comply with the so-called harmonized standards or state-of-the-art standards (Article 8 – Use of harmonized standards).