ISO 27001 is focused on information protection, so regardless of the department's purposes, the approach will be the same: information security risks are assessed, and the ones considered relevant are treated considering at least controls listed in the standard’s Annex A.
Controls from ISO 27001 Annex A cover technical, physical, and administrative aspects of information security considering a wide range of organizational aspects, like Human Resources, Information Technology, and Physical environment.
For example, for an HR department, ISO 27001 may focus on the protection of employees’ information. For an R&D department, information related to the organization or customer’s projects can be the scope. Finally, for an IT department, ISO 27001 can be used to protect information and communication systems.
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