As you have indicated, different types of documented information require different retention times, and these will come from different places. Unfortunately, these places are not the same for every industry in every country in the world. For instance, in Canada we need to keep financial records for 7 years, but this will be different in other countries, and different laws will apply to this.
However, in general the record retention times for production records will come from customer requirements, even if there is a legal requirement associated with them. For instance, for aircraft records in North America there is a legal requirement to keep records for the life of the aircraft, but this should be flowed down to suppliers through contracts stating how long records are to be kept, and what to do at the end of this time (such as forwarding the records to the customer). For non-aircraft aerospace suppliers, the cust omer requirements is also the place where customers indicate how long then need you to keep production records. If there is nothing there, then you need to determine a reasonable time-frame yourself.
For more on the requirements around document and record control, see this article: A new approach to document and record control in AS9100, https://advisera.com/9100academy/knowledgebase/new-approach-to-document-and-record-control-in-as9100/