I understand from your question that a calibration certificate was not received. The answer is no, a receipt cannot be used in place of a calibration certificate. ISO 17025 has specific requirements for the suitability of equipment and its calibration. The laboratory must ensure that equipment conforms to specified requirements. Evidence that equipment can perform as required may, depending on the equipment, be a specific qualification or verification process which may be provided in some part by the provider. The laboratory needs to verify this post installation, on your site. If the use of your equipment is to establish the metrological traceability of reported results or if the validity of the reported results is affected by measurement accuracy and or uncertainty, then you need calibration and a calibration certificate which meets ISO 17025 requirements of for calibration reports.
The following articles will provide further information related to equipment and calibration